Installation guide for solar panels

Solar power has seen significant growth in Vietnam over the past 5 years, with over 105.000 systems of various sizes installed across the country.

The installation of solar power systems on rooftops is relatively straightforward. However, not all installation companies follow the correct methods and techniques to optimize the performance of solar panels and ensure the efficiency and safety of the system.

This article provides important information for Customers and Partners about the process of installing solar power systems, from choosing the right installation unit to the necessary steps to ensure performance and safety, to system maintenance for stability and long-term energy savings.

1. Prepare construction tools and occupational safety equipment

Occupational safety during the construction process is an integral and essential part of any construction project or solar panel installation. Adhering to safety regulations helps protect the health and lives of workers and project participants. Here are some essential safety equipment and tools for construction: Safety shoes, hard hats, protective clothing, safety belts, safety glasses, earplugs…


Basic construction tools: cutting machines, cordless drills, hex keys, basic electrical tools include:


2. Choose installation location for solar panel

Choosing the installation location for solar panels is a crucial factor to ensure the maximum efficiency of the system. Here are some factors to consider when selecting the installation location:

+ Direction and tilt angle: The installation location should be positioned to receive maximum sunlight. This requires determining the optimal direction and tilt angle for the solar panels. In the Northern Hemisphere, the best direction is towards the South, with an inclination angle approximately equal to the local latitude. However, this may vary depending on your specific geographical location.

+ Unobstructed sunlight: The installation location should ensure that the panels are not shaded by trees, buildings, or other structures during the sunlight hours. Any shading can reduce the performance of the solar power system.

Installation area should be well-ventilated with good sunlight exposure

+ Supporting structure and durability: The installation location should provide enough space to install supporting structures such as panel frames and mounting systems. Ensure that these structures are securely installed and can withstand harsh weather conditions such as strong winds or snow.

+ Limited shading: Avoid installing solar panels in shaded areas. Any shading can reduce the performance of the solar power system.

Avoid installing solar panels in shaded areas

+ Operation and maintenance: Consider installing solar panels in an easily accessible location for periodic maintenance activities such as panel cleaning and system checks. Easy maintenance ensures the stability and optimal performance of the entire system.

3. Installation guide for solar panel frames on corrugated metal roofs

The system of accessories for installing solar panels on square-wave corrugated metal roofs

+ Material and Quality: Choose a support frame made from high-quality materials that can withstand environmental and weather impacts. Stainless steel or aluminum alloy is often used because of their high durability and excellent corrosion resistance.

+ Stability: The support frame needs to have high stability to withstand impacts from wind, rain, and the load of the solar panels. It should be designed and installed to withstand harsh environmental factors and keep the solar panels in a fixed position.

+ Load Distribution: The support frame should be designed to evenly distribute the load on the roof surface. This ensures stability and prevents a concentration of load at a single point, which could cause damage to the roof.

+ Safety Standards: When installing the support frame, adhere to predetermined safety standards. Ensure that the system complies with regulations regarding insulation, lightning protection, and occupational safety to avoid electrical risks, fires, and workplace accidents.

+ Inspection and Maintenance: Conduct regular inspections and maintenance of the support frame to ensure stability and safety. Check connections, screws, and other components to ensure they are not corroded or loose.

+ Compliance with Local Regulations: Always comply with local regulations related to the installation of solar panel support frames. Review legal requirements, environmental protection, and construction safety when carrying out installations.

4. Installation of  Frame on square corrugated metal roof

Accessory system for installing solar panels on square-wave corrugated metal roofs

Step 1: Check the actual ground dimensions and drawings, then mark the installation positions of the L feet. The L feet positions must be linked to the roof trusses.

Step 2: Use an M8 bolt head B2stek screwdriver to attach the L feet to the marked positions.

Bolt the L feet

Step 3: Use various waterproof accessories such as multi-purpose outdoor silicone adhesive applied under the contact surface of the L feet and the metal roof.

Actual installation of L feet

The L feet screws must use corrosion-resistant self-drilling screws (e.g., B2Stek screws), and avoid using steel screws.

Step 4: Install aluminum rails. The aluminum rails are connected to the L feet using specialized bolts.

huong-dan-lap-dat-tam-pin-nang-luong-mat-troi-8279The aluminum rail must be higher than the L feet, and the tightening force of the bolts must meet the technical standards of the supplier (12-14Nm).


5. Installation of solar panels

Choose dimensions that are suitable for the thickness of the solar panel to securely install solar panels with the aluminum rail frame system. The clamps use middle and end clamps with a grip that needs to be tightened according to the recommendations of the aluminum rail frame manufacturer and the solar panel manufacturer. The tightening force on the clamps should be marked to ensure that all screws are properly tightened and not missed during construction.


huong-dan-lap-dat-tam-pin-nang-luong-mat-troi-11279Ngàm kẹp tấm pin lắp đặt sai kỹ thuật

** Warning: Currently, there are many “homemade” panel clamps on the market that do not meet the technical standards of the manufacturers. It is advised not to use these types of clamps!!!


During the installation process, it is not allowed to step on, stomp, or sit on the surface of the solar panels.


Stepping on the solar panels can lead to the phenomenon of micro-cracks (cell pin cracks), resulting in hot spots and damage to the solar panels.

Hot spot phenomenon caused by cell pin cracks

The installation, transportation, and placement of solar panels should be based on the installation instructions provided by the solar panel manufacturer to develop a suitable installation plan. The locations that bear the load of the solar panels directly impact their load-bearing capacity and their performance under different weather conditions. Scan the QR code on the panel pallet to access accurate and up-to-date installation instructions from the solar panel manufacturer.


Taking the example of the CS3W-440MS solar panel from Canadian Solar. According to the manufacturer’s instructions, when installing the aluminum rail, it should be parallel to the short edge of the solar panel. The distance from the position of the aluminum rail to the edge of the panel is denoted as A1, and the optimal A1 range is 410 – 490mm. The solar panel can withstand a maximum force of up to 5400 Pa.


6. System connection

Solar panels are connected in series. The standards for connecting solar panels must ensure water resistance (IP 68) and operational capability throughout their lifecycle. Commonly used connection standards include MC4, T4, etc. At the two ends of the panel array, when connecting to the 2 poles of the array, specialized MC4 connectors and MC4 crimping tools must be used for construction.

MC4 connector set and specialized crimping tool

The number of solar panels connected in series depends on the specifications of the solar panels and the operating voltage of the inverter. However, they will be connected in various ways, as described below.


Systems where solar panels are connected in series will create a magnetic field area. In practical conditions, this magnetic field area may cause dust buildup, affecting the panels’ ability to absorb radiation.

The connection of solar panels should consider the type of connection to minimize this magnetic field area. Here are some examples:


7. Maintenance and operation guidelines

Refer to the article introducing O&M services here

8. Operational projects

Solar power project at Dai Loc Shoe Factory
3MWp solar power project at Phong Thanh Phat Company

Contact DAT Group immediately at the toll-free hotline 1800 6567 for advice on the most suitable, flexible, and efficient solar power installation solutions, helping optimize costs and time.